I found this document on the City of Aurora website. It outlines the responsibilities of a construction supervisor. Although you may not be planning to quite your day job to seek out a high stress construction management job, you may be wanting to do your own build. This document shows what the governing municipalities are expecting of you if you do build within their jurisdiction.
Every city and county has their own list of requirements, this general list of permits and inspections in going to be very similar almost anywhere you go. As more time passes, we continue to see more and more municipalities coming to a common code and referring to common documents. I would imagine that we will see a unified building code in the very near future weather we like it or not.
Although you as a home owner will not be held to the same knowledge base requirements or testing (in most places) as a licensed contractor, you will be responsible for the same outcome. The burden is on you to study and construct your projects to meet current codes and regulations. But don't go it alone. Talk to your building department before you begin work to find out what the common mistakes are for your project and ask if they have any information regarding whatever you are working on. Also, use the collective knowledge of those of us posting to the web. There are thousands of contractors and licensed builders who regularly involve themselves in blogs, forums, and videos online just to help those of you looking to do something right the first time.